BWV-index bwv 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 anh I II III
pref 1d 2d 1e 2e 3d 4d 4e app 1 2 3 4 5 6
When the keystone of the monumental Complete Edition of the Works of Johann Sebastian Bach was put in place in 1899, Bach research was truly able to claim that it had accomplished a huge and important task. After half a century of arduous and conscientious work, it had not only fulfilled an urgent national obligation but also made an essential contribution to the ever growing dissemination of Bach's music throughout the civilized nations of the world. Bach's music has repeatedly inspired creative and performing artists in our century, a circumstance whose future consequences - fortunately, we might add - still cannot be foreseen. With the editing of Bach's works, men like Hauptmann, Rietz, Rust, Dörffel - to name but the most important - have transmitted a cultural legacy that promises to be a wellspring of energy, providing aesthetic nourishment in ever new forms.
This faith in the present and future effects of Bach's music has motivated scholars over the past fifty years to continue working on this legacy. A number of highly important and interesting compositions have been rediscovered; let us mention only the Quodlibet (BWV 524), the G major Violin Sonata (BWV 1021), and the solo cantata "Mein Herze schwimmt im Blut" (BWV 199). Furthermore, a number of works in the Complete Edition were declared spurious on the basis of conscientious and detailed examinations. And in many cases, it was possible to supplement or correct the dates of origin and first performance. In addition, newly discovered autographs and valuable copies made in Bach's time made it possible to publish emended critical editions, while philological precision, expert knowledge, increased sensitivity and associative daring led to ever new interpretations: these are illustrated on a small scale, for example, by the publication of practical editions of various keyboard works, and, on a larger scale, above all by the various attempts to reproduce the intended sound of the "Art of Fugue". Finally, supported by new scholarly findings, traditional views on questions of performance practice began to undergo a transformation leading away from the Romantic predilection for excessive volume to the present-day call for clear and transparent interpretations that bring out the structure of the parts.
The purpose and goal of this Catalogue, which is proud to take its place among a series of undertakings seeking to open up the wealth of Bach's music, is to integrate the knowledge acquired over the past fifty years with the achievements of the Complete Edition, and to reproduce the results very concisely, and generally only in the form of a reference, following the reliable scheme provided by the incipits of all the works created by Bach or claimed to be of his hand. We have pursued a triple goal: firstly, on the strength of the most recent research, we have sought to establish which and how many works are actually by Bach; secondly, the inventory of early manuscript sources and printed editions is designed to facilitate subsequent source studies in Bach's works; thirdly, the bibliographical listing of editions and scholarly writings (this concept is intentionally interpreted in a broad sense) is intended not only to serve as a guide for further research, but was also exploited in the Catalogue itself.
Given these objectives - which must appear of no small dimensions even to the uninitiated - one thing became absolutely clear: there could only be a very restricted scope for personal research. And if, nevertheless, a few "new findings" have found their way into the Catalogue - for example, the elucidations concerning Anh. 158, the ascription of a manuscript to its proper place (BB Mus. ms. autogr. Bach P1162) or the explanation of various interrelationships among manuscripts (BWV 188, under the entry "autograph") - these are findings that more or less fell into the editor's lap during his work, and did not absorb too much of his precious time. Had he ventured into the jungle of differing opinions on the authenticity or spuriousness of works, on the various datings and questions of scoring, etc., he would still be at the beginning of his task. Everyone in whom Bach's works are alive and who has had access at some time to the precious sources himself knows that
[P xxiii] such a project requires a good deal of self-effacement. On the following pages, we will try to illustrate what has just been expressed by briefly reviewing the paths that were taken to achieve the triple goal we had set for our project.
What were the predecessors of our compilation of Bach's works, the existing materials on which we were able to base our project? The first comprehensive listing, albeit without thematic incipits, is found in the obituary by Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach and Johann Friedrich Agricola, which was printed in Mizler's "Musicalische Bibliothek" in 1754. This is followed by the considerably more important "Verzeichnis des musikalischen Nachlasses des verstorbenen Capellmeisters Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach" of 1790, which contains extensive sections devoted to Bach's "Instrumental Works" and "Vocal Works" - they, too, without the themes note 1. This estate catalogue, which contains both texts and medium, is the most extensive compilation prior to Hauser's thematic catalogue. Although it only takes into account Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach's portion of the inheritance, it is all the more valuable as a source when considering that the portion of the inheritance belonging to Wilhelm Friedemann - which, as we know, suffered a terrible fate that left irreparable damage -has not been transmitted in a similar form. Bach's manuscripts were inherited by these two sons note 2. The next serious endeavor to deal with Bach's works is to be found in Johann Nikolaus Forkel's biography note 3. Like the obituary of 1754, this inventory, also without thematic incipits, attempts to give an overview of Bach's oeuvre. It certainly never claimed to be complete or exact; indeed, the vocal works, in particular, were treated rather cursorily and with a rather obvious dependency on the obituary. But its lasting merit is that it transmits a large number of the most important instrumental works, and that it divides and systematically groups the multitude of Bach's compositional forms for the first time in a fashion that is still acceptable today, and that has even been partially used in this Catalogue.
These various sources were combined about thirty years later in the aforementioned first thematic catalogue of the works of Bach, which was put together by Franz Hauser, a passionate Bach admirer and collector of his manuscripts. As a highly sought-after operatic baritone, Hauser had many opportunities during his travels to meet with other collectors as well as with the conservators of the priceless manuscripts in public libraries. This allowed him to increase by an extraordinary measure the very sparse listings of 1754, 1790 and 1802. In his closing word to the Bach Complete Edition note 4, Hermann Kretzschmar admitted that this edition would probably not have been undertaken if it hadn't been for Hauser's catalogue. It is, however, regrettable that, contrary to the original plans, this highly informative and fundamental work was not published note 5. Since it also names the owners of the manuscripts, it would still be a valuable source for the clarification of questions of provenance, particularly of such manuscripts that are still in private collections or on the antiquarian market. Since the critical apparatus of the Complete Edition was not prepared with the same degree of thoroughness throughout the series, not all of Hauser's observations were incorporated into the Complete Edition. Be that as it may, one thing is certain: all of Bach's works, both authentic and spurious, known to Rauser, as well as all the works that could be located in printed catalogues of manuscripts belonging to libraries note 6, have been included in the Complete Edition in some form or other.
The Complete Edition was not the only large-scale project concerned with Johann Sebastian Bach towards the middle of the century. There had been earlier attempts to produce a Complete Edition in the first half of the 19th century, for example those of Hoffmeister & Kühnel in 1801ff. (keyboard works), Peters in 1817ff. (keyboard works, chamber music, concertos) and Haslinger in 1832ff. (organ works) note 7. The fruits of these efforts, together with new research conducted parallel to that of the editorial board of the Complete Edition, led to the publication of the collected organ works by Griepenkerl and Roitzsch (Peters) and to Alfred Dörffel's "Thematisches Verzeichnis der Instrumentalwerke Bachs" of 1867. This publication, the first edition of which is a true rarity today, has an infinitely greater source value than the thematic catalogue of the vocal works prepared by Tamme and published considerably later (in 1889). Since this latter catalogue was based essentially on the Complete Edition, it contained only the vocal works that had been published up to Volume 37 inclusively. A comprehensive listing reflecting the contents of the entire Complete Edition was provided only in the final volume of the Complete Edition which appeared in 1899 and had been preceded by the themes of Cantatas 1-120 in Volume 272 of 1878.
In addition to the Complete Edition, a number of library catalogues published after 1900 note 8, antiquarian catalogues and, above all, the Bach compositions published since the appearance of the Complete Edition also played an important role as source material. Johann Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf's three early catalogues - the "Verzeichnis Musikalischer Bücher" of 1760-1780, the "Verzeichnis Musicalischer Werke" of 1761-1780, and the "Catalogo delle Sinfonie" with complete supplements from 1762 to 1787 - were also helpful since they confirm suppositions about Bach's authorship of various pieces (the question of their authoritativeness must be left out of consideration here), list the names of other composers - presumably the right ones - for dubious works, and contain some works that are otherwise nowhere to be found. Finally, the research carried out in many libraries brought to light some more works which bear Johann Sebastian Bach's name and which were incorporated in the appendices containing spurious compositions and works of dubious authenticity.
The research in libraries primarily served to help us achieve the second goal of this Catalogue, that of providing the greatest possible amount of early manuscript and printed sources for each work. This undertaking was as lengthy as it was complicated, and the editor's blood runs cold time and again when he thinks of how much work was done in vain. For, if we may briefly anticipate a matter which we will be discussing at length later on, the destruction in 1943 of the manuscript that was ready for printing and the devastation and impoverishment of the German library stocks have led to the irretrievable loss of the basic material and sources for a compilation of this kind, and it will undoubtedly take many years before another attempt to catalogue the sources in a more or less exhaustive manner can be undertaken. What we have listed here in the way of manuscripts and publications is a torso compiled from old proof sheets, notes, and letters. We have consciously limited ourselves to autographs and copies made by reliable scribes. Moreover, the present state of the sources has not been taken into consideration, i.e. all the autographs, copies and publications are assigned to the institutions in which they had been located until 1945. For a source list of Bach's works which accounts for the completely new circumstances, one will have to wait for the supplement to the present Catalogue, which is already being planned.
As far as the third goal is concerned, which is to offer the results of Bach research from its inception in, strictly speaking, Mizler's obituary to the present day, we were faced with a double task: the bibliographic inventory and the critical examination. It was utterly out of the question to lirik title after title. Instead, the results of these thousands of individual examinations - for example,
[P xxv] information concerning the authors of the texts, the period of origin, dates of performance, parodies and, particularly, the authenticity - had to be compared and distributed at various places within the Catalogue. But here, too, it was impossible to probe adequately into the countless topics involved. Without losing too much time, we had to select the most well-founded observations, and indicate divergent opinions in a supplementary note. The Catalogue would most likely never have seen the light of day had the editor wanted to pronounce himself on such matters as, for example, the authenticity of the Cantata "Schlage doch, gewülnschte Stunde" (BWV 53), the St. Luke Passion (BWV 246), the Schemelli hymns (BWV 439-507), the Giovannini aria "WilIst du dein Herz mir schenken" (BWV 518), the F major Violin Sonata (BWV 1022) and the Trio Sonata in G major (BWV 1038) or the two concerto arrangements for three claviers (BWV 1063/64) - examples which could be multiplied at will. In this context, let us also recall the eight-part Mass Anh. 167, which was long considered a work by Bach note 9. And let us also not forget that some of the chorales within Bach's cantatas may not stem from Bach at all note 10. The same applies to the attribution of the date of origin of the works: here, the year indicated is often only an approximate estimation of the date of the first performance. Scholars' opinions often differ widely here note 11 and even special detailed studies must come to the general conclusion that a chronological order - we are referring here to that of the organ works - is impossible, "since there are not enough internal and external grounds for a relatively unobjectionable chronological arrangement" note 12. On the other hand, all the well-founded results of solid research were taken into consideration in this Catalogue, especially those concerning the recurrent use of the same composition (see the B Minor Mass BWV 232), the preliminary and original forms (see the Well-Tempered Clavier BWV 846-893), the identified composers of spurious works (see Anh. III) and the presumed or dubious works. These findings form the foundation for almost all the informative statements about the various works.
Although the objectives of our Catalogue provided us with a guideline that proved useful throughout the small-scale work of the compilation, this guideline failed to offer any kind of blueprint for the overall structure of the Catalogue. Let us linger a little over this matter which, after all, is a vital aspect of this book. It is said of books that have been completed: "Habent sua fata libelli". The BWV's "fata" began during its genesis, back in 1926, as Johannes Wolgast took up the project at the suggestion of the publishing house Breitkopf & Härtel, which supplied him with printed file cards bearing various entries. This was initially to have been, in essence, an excerpt from the Bach Complete Edition. Guidelines were established for the numbering, the various categories, and the procedure of the work, and the book might have been published years ago in a cogent form conceived by the editor had death not put an end to these plans. Since the extensive research that the prematurely departed editor must have conducted for the catalogue during the last years of this life was only rarely entered on the above-mentioned cards note 13, the following editor had to start again practically from scratch. Paul Rubardt, who then took this legacy into his hands, infused the Catalogue with the strength it needed to grow little by little, year after year: he forged his way through the Complete Edition, visited libraries to examine their collections of Bach manuscripts, and put together lists of secondary literature from numerous sources. But he, too, was unable to consummate this project despite his diligent field work. In March 1937, Breitkopf & Härtel then entrusted the project to its archivist, the present and final editor.
And now the moment has come to report briefly about the unfortunate turn his work was to take. The final proofs were sent off to the Leipzig publishing house in the spring of 1943. Although the work was ready for printing, technical difficulties prevented it from going to press that same year. But at least a beginning was made, and the first sheets were printed. Then came the fateful day of 4 December 1943, when an air raid on Leipzig destroyed all the printed sheets, the entire typesetting material, many engraving plates and ... the manuscript. Since the copy of this Leipzig typescript manuscript had already been destroyed by fire in Frankfurt am Main just two months previously (on 4 October 1943), it seemed hopeless at first to even think about reconstructing the work. After the war was over, it turned out that a significant number of engraving plates had survived, as well as an old set of proofs, dating from around 1938, that was in the editor's possession. He thus returned to his work on the Catalogue in the spring of 1946. Although the means at his disposal were truly insufficient, his difficult task proved nevertheless to be possible. The fact that he reached his goal - inasmuch as one can speak of a "goal" at all with regard to such a book - precisely in 1950 casts a comforting light on the long and star-crossed story of this publication.
The history of this Catalogue, from its inception to the moment this editor took it over, is important insofar as it shows that more than just the outline of the overall structure existed before the editor was entrusted with the project. There existed not only the rough division Vocal Works / Instrumental Works, but also a system of organization of the various compositional forms within these divisions, an order which, under these circumstances, he was obliged to keep. He thus directed his efforts toward a logical elaboration of this system, whose fundamental aspects were clearly discernible (the difficulty in dating Bach's works precluded the possibility of a chronological order note 14. He also strove to eliminate the eclecticism of the order of the works within larger groups which resulted from the intermingling of contents in various volumes of the Complete Edition. In other words: he had to free himself from a confining dependence on the Complete Edition, not only in the aforementioned respect, but on the whole as well. Only in this manner was it possible to acceed to the following overall structure of the Catalogue, which intentionally takes up the well-known, traditional cantata numbers.
Although this system also reflects the publication sequence of the Complete Edition in the varying order within certain sections (e.g. the different location of the Sonatas and of the Preludes and Fugues within the Organ and Clavier sections), this is not as objectionable as a completely random arrangement or, to be more precise, as the muddle of various sub-categories that would have necessarily resulted from a rigid observance of the publication sequence within the Complete Edition. This Catalogue has not been conceived as a system for its own sake, but as a cogent form of order derived from practical requirements. For example, it would have been logical to place the "Musical Offering" in the Clavier and Chamber Music categories, or the "Art of Fugue" among the Clavier works. We refrained from doing so, however, not only because of the highly debated question of the proper performance medium, but above all because these works give rise to classes that transcend the given categories, or that can at least take their place next to them as equal partners. The sequence Canons - Musical Offering - Art of Fugue and its position at the close of the Catalogue also have such an "inner" motivation: these works represent the highest artistic forms with which Bach preoccupied himself during the last years of his life.
We very consciously proceeded in a non-dogmatical manner not only as far as the overall arrangement was concerned - which goes back partly to Forkel (see above, p. XXIII) and the Hauser Catalogue - but also with respect to the observance of certain specific organizational principles. Thus, for example, various versions of the same music (parodies, above all) are placed under the same number and distinguished with exponents note 15. Wherever the second version differs so radically from the first that it gives rise to a new form of the work (concerto arrangements!), we have given it a new number and a new position. But first and foremost, we have always attempted - save for a few exceptions note 16 and at the risk of producing a slight discrepancy within the system note 17 - to gather under a common heading all the works that belong together, i.e. groups of similar compositions arranged to form an entity following either Bach's own will or the will of significant copyists that is manifested in the original manuscripts. Of course, all these groups concur with the form in which they have been transmitted. These groups thus do not follow the order of practical editions, which sometimes actually represent an improvement, e.g. at BWV 924-943; instead, they aim to reflect
[P xviii] the organic growth of the various groups of works. Only a small number of groups has been derived from purely practical considerations, which also take into consideration the Catalogue's use as a reference tool. Whoever feels that the order of the instrumental works is not systematic enough should consult the thematic index (on page 933ff.), which we compiled completely independently of any pre-existing material and which also includes the works contained in the appendices. Here, the systematic order partly note 18 extends even into the sequence of the various themes of a group note 19.
It was impossible to follow any rigid principles in the compilation of the appendices, particularly the one containing dubious works. The editor is very much aware that some of the works in the main section might better have been placed in the appendix, for example, some of the poorly documented cantatas BWV 217-222, the St. Luke Passion, various Schemelli hymns and a few organ, clavier and chamber music works. On the strength of the growing conviction that the boundaries between the dubious works of the appendix and those of the main section must remain fluid because of the present state of Bach research, and since the Catalogue, as previously mentioned, was not and could not be conceived as a showplace for new schola4y findings, the editor was obliged to make a rather specious but rigorous decision to place in Appendix II only works that have never been attributed to Bach either in an edition or in Bach literature, save for some rare and unambiguous exceptions. Even if a few dubious works have remained in the main section, where they are naturally identified as such, this is doubtlessly less objectionable than the label "of dubious authenticity" that the conscientious chronicler would have felt obliged to attach to works that are generally considered authentic and which the editor also feels are authentic, even if only one single doubt is raised against them. The authenticity files will undoubtedly remain open as long as those concerning problems of dating.
There is one problem, however, that the editor could not leave open to discussion to the same extent as the above-mentioned; this is a problem he had to solve himself according to the best of his knowledge, namely, just how far he should go in including dubious compositions in this catalogue. What determined the omission of works were considerations such as missing or subsequently added attributions of authorship in the sources; the slight possibility of authenticity resulting from an evaluation of the music itself; the problem of fragments that are so incomplete as to prevent us from being able to make a picture of the work as a whole; bibliographical sources that are too unreliable; and other similar grounds. In order to illustrate this procedure with examples, but above all in order to grant a modest place in this catalogue to a few works that are not otherwise included, we are providing a list of the excluded works which had the weightiest reasons to be considered.
These explanations have covered the entire scope of the Catalogue, all its goals and aims and its desire to be comprehensive, and yet there is something else the editor feels an urgent need to express: his thanks for the wealth of information he has received from countless sources, either written or verbally communicated, often involving considerable efforts and time-consuming research on the part of many people. The editor needed many years of work in the Music Department of the Öffentliche Wissenschaftliche Bibliothek in Berlin to comb through its extraordinarily rich collections of original Bach manuscripts and priceless copies of his works. Throughout these years, the editor was cordially and willingly assisted by the director of the Music Department, Professor Dr. Georg Schünemann and Dr. Peter Wackernagel; they not only allowed him to consult all the Bach autographs and copies in the library, but they also sent many manuscripts to him in Leipzig, which significantly facilitated his task. The greatest demands were made on senior librarian Dr. Peter Wackernagel, to whom I wish to express my very warmest thanks here for his enormous diligence, his unflagging cooperation, and for the abundance of valuable written information he provided. After Berlin, Leipzig also made a very important contribution to the inventory of the manuscript sources thanks to its various music collections. The directors of the Stadtbibliothek kindly allowed us to record its treasures, particularly those in its "Sammlung Gorke". The invaluable cantata performing parts preserved at the St. Thomas School were carefully studied with the gracious consent of the directors of this eminent institution. The editor will never forget the weeks during which he consulted the priceless manuscripts and in which he was able to experience at first hand the hallowed, centuries-old traditions of this school. He also wishes to thank the director of the Peters Music Library, Professor Dr. Eugen Schmitz, for his kind permission to consult the Bach manuscripts in this library and, of course, Breitkopf & Härtel, which not only put its splendid collection of Bach manuscripts at the editor's disposal, but also committed itself fully to the technical realization and completion of this book. The editor also appreciates the admirable patience manifested by this publishing house during the minute, day-to-day work involved in compiling this book.
The editor also wishes to thank the ever helpful custodian of the Bach-Raus in Eisenach, Studierrat Conrad Freyse; the estimable collector of Bach manuscripts, Mr. Manfred Gorke, who kindly offered his help in the reconstruction of some numbers in the manuscript after the destruction of the printer's copy; the former director of the Music Department of the Sachsische Landesbibliothek, Dr. Ewald Jammers, who not only contributed valuable information about the Bach manuscripts he was responsible for, but also followed the progress of this book with ongoing interest and offered valuable advice; Dr. Hedwig Kraus, the director of the archives of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna; the administration of the Landesstiftung Coburg; the directors of the former Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek in Königsberg, the Stadtbibliothek in Danzig and the former Bibliothek fur Neuere Sprachen und Musik (now the Stadt- und Universitätsbibliothek) in Frankfurt am Main, which graciously sent a number of its truly valuable early manuscripts to Leipzig. Special thanks go out to the directorial board of the Stiftung Mozarteum in Frankfurt am Main, and to Mr. A. B. Anthes for considerately fulfilling all the editor's wishes.
When looking back on the evolution of this project and on the work itself, the editor is plagued by doubts about his accomplishment. But who wouldn't wish the best for his child? And who could be entirely satisfied with his accomplishment when considering the scope of its scholarly subject, which is in a state of constant flux, and, particularly, the great number of questions to be answered and problems to be solved? Such a project, as we know, is generally more or less completed" only after two or three generations. He who takes the first steps is the one who is naturally the most
[P xxxiv] vulnerable to criticism and suffers the most violent attacks as well. Nevertheless, this pioneer project had to be carried out, and the editor always attempted to do this as well and as conscientiously as he was able to. Re is also aware that the inevitable revision process will undoubtedly begin as soon as the book appears, when, for example, a number of fortunate private manuscript owners, guarding their treasures in obscurity, "rejoice" to find that their Bach autographs are not listed, or when certain fastidious scholars, stimulated by the magnitude of this Catalogue's goals, open their fearfully sheltered files, bringing to light numerous questionable Bach works, but perhaps some truly authentic ones as well. In view of the inevitability of this process, the editor only wishes to express the modest hope that all new findings are sent to him or to the publisher in some form or other. Their willingness to make sacrifices and share their knowledge would bear witness to these collectors' and scholars' cooperativeness and would splendidly testify to the fundamental honesty and constructive will of musicological research as well as to the respect for the genius of Johann Sebastian Bach.
Frankfurt am Main, Spring 1950
Dr. Wolfgang Schmieder